1 司法権  the judicial power
2 司法審査権  power of judicial review
3 連邦最高裁判所の管轄権  jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
4 第一審管轄権  original jurisdiction
5 上訴管轄権  appellate jurisdiction
6 サーシオレイライ  writ of Certiorari
  The Supreme Court has complete discretion to hear cases that come to it by certiorari.
7 権利上訴  appeal by right
8 勧告的意見は認められない  No Advisory Opinions
  There must be specific present harm or threat of specific future harm.
9 宣告的判決  declaratory judgement
10 成熟性  ripeness-immediate threat of harm  
  A plaintiff is not entitled to review of a statute or regulation before its enforcement unless the
   plaintiff will suffer some harm or immediate threat of harm.
11 争訟性の喪失  mootness
A federal court will not hear a case that has become moot.
12 当事者適格  standing
A person must have a concrete stake in the outcome of a case.
13 権利侵害  injury
14 因果関係  causation
15 救済可能性  redressability
16 連邦議会による当事者適格  congressional conferral of standing
17 連邦制定法を執行する当事者適格  standing to enforce government statutes
18 他者の権利を主張する当事者適格  standing to assert rights of others
19 組織の当事者適格  standing of organizations
20 市民権では当事者適格は満たさない  no citizenship standing
21 納税者の当事者適格 taxpayer standing
22 宗教公益団体  religious charitable organization
23 連邦政府の補助金 federal funding
24 行政命令  executive order
25 一般予算から支出される行政府の行為  executive-branch actions funded by the general funds
26 適切かつ独立した州法に基づく場合  adequate and independent state grounds
27 回避 abstention
28 州法に関する未解決問題  unsettled question of state law
A federal court will temporarily abstain from resolving a constitutional claim when the disposition rests on an unsettled question of state law.
29 係属中の州の手続  pending state proceedings
30 禁止する  enjoin
31 刑事手続  criminal proceedings
32 行政又は民事手続  administrative or civil proceedings
33 迷惑行為  harassment
34 政治的問題  political questions
Political questions will not be decided. These are issues constitutionally committed to another branch of government or inherently incapable of judicial resolution.
35 主権免除  Sovereign immunity
36 課税権限  taxing power
37 歳出権限  spending power
38 通商権限  commerce power
39 州内活動  intrastate activity
40 戦争及びこれに関連した権限  war and related powers
41 経済的規制  economic regulation
42 軍事裁判所及び軍事裁判  military courts and tribunals
43 敵国文民及び兵士  enemy civilians and soldiers
44 人身保護令状  habeas corpus
A writ employed to bring a person before a court, most frequently to ensure that the party’s imprisonment or detention is not illegal.
45 調査権  investigatory power
46 財産に関する権限  property power
47 収用  takings
48 公用収用  eminent domain
49 福祉権能  police power
The inherent and plenary power of a sovereign to make all laws necessary and proper to preserve the public security, order, health, morality, and justice
50 破産に関する権限  bankruptcy power
51 郵便に関する権限  postal power
52 市民権に関する権限  power over citizenship
53 外国人の排除  exclusion of aliens
54 帰化及び国籍剥奪  naturalization and denaturalization
55 海事に関する権限  admiralty power
56 貨幣を鋳造する権限及び度量衡の基準を定める権限  power to coin money and fix weights and measures
57 特許権及び著作権  patens/copyrights
58 立法権の委任  delegation of legislative power
59 明瞭な基準  intelligible standards
60 連邦議員の免責  immunity for federal legislators
61 二院制  bicameralism
The necessity of approval by a majority of both houses of Congress in ratifying legislation or approving legislative action
62 正式通知  presentment
The act of bringing a congressional decision before the President for his approval or veto
63 任命権  appointment powers
64 解任  removal of appointees
65 弾劾手続  impeachment process
66 恩赦  pardon
67 拒否権  veto power
68 拒否権の放置  pocket veto
69 会期中  in session
70 全体として  in toto
71 賛否  yeas and nays
72 予算不執行  impound
73 現実の戦争  actual hostilities
74 外交関係  foreign relations
75 条約締結権  treaty power
76 国内法化  implementation
77 行政協定  executive agreement
78 州法との抵触  conflict with state laws
79 行政特権  executive privilege
80 公式表明  communiques
81 大統領補佐官  presidential aides
82 反逆罪  treason
83 重大な犯罪  high crimes
84 軽罪  misdemeanors


1 連邦制 federalism
2 権力分立 separation of powers
3 立法府 legislative
4 行政府 executive
5 司法府 judicial
6 法律を制定する権力 the power to make the law
7 法律を執行する権力 the power to enforce the law
8 法律を解釈する権力 the power to interpret the law
9 抑制と均衡 Checks and Balances
10 連邦裁判官の指名 Appoints Federal judges
11 指名の承認 Confirms appointments
12 司法審査 Judicial review
13 拒否権 Veto power
14 違憲 unconstitutional
15 制定法 statute
16 コモン・ロー common law
17 連邦制定法 federal statute
18 州制定法 state statute
19 連邦コモン・ロー federal common law
20 州コモン・ロー state common law
21 規定 codes
22 規則 rules
23 行政機関 administrative agencies
24 規制 regulations
25 条約 treaties
26 米国法の序列 Hierarchy of U.S.Law
27 陪審審理 jury trial
28 損害賠償 damages
29 貴族院 House of Lords
30 大法官 Lord Chancellor
31 エクイティ上の利益 equitable interest
32 法律家協会 State Bar association
33 法律業務 practice of law
34 その事件限り pro hac vice
35 最高裁判所裁判官 Justice
36 事実審及び上訴審の裁判官 Judge
37 治安判事 magistrate, justice of the peace
38 治安判事裁判所 justice of the peace court
39 有給治安何時 stipendiary magistrate
40 司法官 judicial officer
41 政府の代理人 government attorney
42 連邦政府 federal government
43 州政府 state government
44 フィラデルフィア Philadelphia
45 憲法制定会議 constitutional convention
46 権利章典 Bill of Rights
47 前文 Preamble
48 条文 Articles
49 修正条項 Amendments
50 連邦事実審裁判所  federal trial court
51 連邦上訴裁判所  federal appellate court
52 連邦最高裁判所  federal supreme court
53 連邦特別裁判所  federal special court
54 12の巡回区上訴裁判所  12 regional Circuit Courts of Appeals
55 一次的な事実審裁判所  primary trial court
56 地方裁判所  district court
57 地区  district
58 事実問題  matter of fact 
59 法律問題  matter of law
60 国際貿易裁判所  Court of International Trade
61 連邦巡回区上訴裁判所  The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal circuit
62 連邦最高裁判所首席裁判官  Chief Justice
63 連邦最高裁判所陪席裁判官  associate justice
64 州事実審裁判所  state trial court
65 一般的管轄権  general jurisdiction
66 訴額の限度  dollar limitation
67 公式記録  formal records
68 下位事実審裁判所  inferior trial court
69 少額裁判所  small claims court
70 州上訴裁判所  state appellate court
71 州中級上訴裁判所  intermediate appellate court
72 裁量  discretionary
73 特別裁判所  special court
74 制限的管轄権  specialized/limited jurisdiction
75 遺言及び遺産の管理  administration of wills and estates
76 検認裁判所  probate court
77 離婚及び子供の親権  divorce and child custody
78 家庭裁判所  family court
79 管轄権  jurisdiction
80 事件を受理し審理する裁判所の権限 
       power or authority of a court to hear and decide a given case
81 事物管轄権  subject matter jurisdiction
82 人的管轄権  personal jurisdiction
83 連邦専属管轄権  exclusive federal jurisdiction
84 競合管轄権  concurrent jurisdiction
85 連邦問題管轄権  federal question jurisdiction
86 訴額  amount in controversy
87 州籍相違管轄権  diversity jurisdiction
88 州専属管轄権  exclusive state jurisdiction
89 対人管轄権  in personam jurisdiction
90 対物管轄権  in rem jurisdiction
91 準対物管轄権  Quasi in rem jurisdiction
92 大陪審  grand jury
93 小陪審  petty jury
94 訴訟原因  cause of action
95 訴状  complaint
96 訴答  pleadings
97 欠席判決  default judgement
98 正式事実審理前手続  pretrial
99 正式事実審理前の取立  pretrial motion
100 請求開示  discovery
101 サマリージャッジメント  summary judgement
102 正式事実審理  trial
103 陪審審理  jury trial
104 裁判所審理  court trial
105 判決  judgement
106 判決登録  entry of judgement
107 判決確定  final and binding judgement
108 上訴  appeal
109 捜索及び押収  search and seizure  
110 逮捕又はその他の留置  arrest and other detention
111 逮捕記録手続  booking
112 所持品検査  inventory
113 指紋採取  fingerprinting
114 宣誓供述書  affidavit
115 宣誓  oath
116 訴追請求書  complaint
117 最初の出頭  initial appearance
118 予審審問  preliminary hearing
119 公判前留置及び保釈  pretrial detention and bail
120 正式起訴  indictment
121 罪状認否手続  arraignment
122 公判前審理  pretrial hearing
123 無罪  not guilty
124 正式事実審理  trial
125 有罪の答弁  guilty plea
126 不抗争  nolo contendere
127 量刑審問手続  sentencing hearing
128 刑の宣告  sentencing
129 刑罰  punishment
130 上訴又は事後的攻撃  appeal or collateral attack
131 非陪審審理  bench trial
132 模範法典  model code
133 アメリカ法律家協会  America Bar Association
134 アメリカ法律協会  American Law Institute
135 法律家行動準則模範規程  Model Rules of Professional Conduct
136 模範刑法典  Model Penal Code
137 統一州法委員会全国会議  National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws
138 統一商事法典  Uniform Commercial Code
139 制定法の文言  statutory language
140 明白な意味の原則  plain meaning rule
141 同類解釈則  Ejusden Generis/”Of the same king”
142 列挙されたものと同種という解釈  Noscitur a sociis/”It is Known by its Companions”
143 1つのことを明記しているのはその他のものの排除を意味するという解釈  
         Expressio Unius/”The Mention of One Thing Excludes Other Things”
144 刑事制定法の綿密な解釈  narrow construction of penal statutes
145 救済的制定法の広範な解釈  broad construction of remedial statutes
146 特別法  specific statute
147 一般法  general statute
148 立法意図  Legislative intent
149 立法過程  Legislative history
150 遡及適用に係る問題  Retroactivity problem
151 先例法理  stare decisis
152 裁判所の意見  court opinion
153 多数意見  majority opinion
154 同意意見  concurring opinion
155 反対意見  dissenting opinion
156 相対多数意見  plurality opinion
157 不法行為法  Torts
158 一応の立証  prima facie case
159 故意による不法行為  intentional torts
160 過失による不法行為  negligence torts
161 厳格責任  strict liability
162 正当防衛  self-defense
163 緊急避難  necessity
164 寄与過失  contributory negligence
165 比較過失  comparative negligence
166 契約法  contracts
167 相互の同意  Mutual Assent
168 約因  Consideration
169 抗弁が存在しない  NO Defenses
170 申込  Offer
171 承諾  Acceptance
172 契約の成立に対する抗弁  Defenses To Formation
173 相互の錯誤  mutual mistake
174 一方的錯誤  unilateral mistake
175 約因の不存在  absence of consideration
176 違法性  illegality
177 能力の欠如に基づく抗弁  Defenses Based On Lack Of Capacity
178 契約する法的能力の欠如  legal incapacity to contract
179 未成年者との契約  contracts of minors
180 意思無能力  mental incapacity
181 酩酊した者  intoxicated persons
182 強迫及び不当威圧  duress and coercion
183 強制力に対する抗弁  Defenses To enforcement
184 詐欺防止法  statutes of frauds
185 非良心性  unconscionability 
186 物品  goods
187 不動産  real estate
188 役務  services
189 無形財産  intangibles
190 建築契約  construction contracts
191 特定履行  specific performance
192 救済  remedies
193 コモン・ロー上の損害賠償  Legal damages
194 填補的損害賠償  Compensatory damages
195 名目的損害賠償  Nominal damages
196 懲罰的損害賠償  Punitive damages
197 原状回復による救済  Restitutionary remedies
198 コモン・ロー上の原状回復  legal restitutionary
199 原状回復のための損害賠償  Restitutionary damages
200 動産占有訴訟  replevin
201 不動産占有回復訴訟  Ejectment
202 エクイティ上の原状回復  Equitable restitutionary
203 擬制信託  Constructive trust
204 エクイティ上の先取特権  Equitable lien
205 エクイティ上の救済  Equitable remedies
206 中間的差止命令  interlocutory injunction
207 一方的緊急差止命令  Temporary restraining order
208 暫定的差止命令  Preliminary injunction
209 本案的差止命令  Permanent injunction
210 エクイティ上の解除  Equitable rescission
211 破棄  Cancellation


1 勾留質問手続  pre-indictment detention hearing
2 検察官  public prosecutor
3 黙秘権  right to remain silent
4 弁護人選任権  right to counsel
5 勾留の要件  summary of pre-indictment detention procedures
6 勾留の期間  duration of pre-indictment detention
7 被疑事実の告知  notice of alleged facts
8 被疑事実に対する陳述  statement by the suspect concerning the allegation
9 勾留通知先  notification of pre-indictment detention
10 領事機関への通報  notification to consul
11 読み聞け  reading of the recorded statement of the defendant, signature and seal
12 公判手続  trial procedures
13 開廷宣言  convening the court
14 通訳人の宣誓  oath by the interpreter
15 人定質問  question to the defendant for identification
16 起訴状朗読  reading the indictment
17 黙秘権の告知  notice of right to remain silent
18 被告事件に対する陳述  statement by the defendant concerning the charge
19 弁護人の意見  defense counsel’s opinion
20 冒頭陳述  public prosecutor’s opening statement
21 証拠調べ請求  request for examination of the evidence
22 証拠請求に対する意見  
  opinion of the defendant concerning the request to examine the evidence
23 書証  documentary evidence
24 証拠物  physical evidence
25 書証の要旨の告知  summary of the documentary evidence
26 証拠物の展示  exhibition of the physical evidence
27 証人申請  request to examine a witness
28 証人申請に対する意見及び証人の採用  
  opinion concerning the request to examine a witness and the ruling of admission
29 証人の尋問手続  procedure to examine a witness
30 証人の宣誓  witness’s oath
31 異議申立て及びその裁定  objections and rulings
32 証人尋問の終了  conclusion of examination of witness
33 弁論の併合決定  joinder rulings of the oral proceedings
34 訴因及び罰条等の変更  changes in the counts and applicable articles of laws or ordinances
35 論告  closing argument
36 弁護人の弁論  defense counsel’s argument
37 出入国管理及び難民認定法違反のケース  
  case of Violation of the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act
38 窃盗のケース  case of larceny
39 被告人の最終陳述  defendant’s final statement
40 公判期日の告知  notice of trial date
41 次回公判期日の告知  notice of next trial date
42 判決言渡期日の告知  notice of judgement date
43 判決宣告  pronunciation of judgement
44 執行猶予の説明  explaining suspension of execution of sentence
45 未決勾留日数  
  inclusion of the days held under detention pending trial in the term of punishment
46 保護観察の説明  explaining of probation
47 上訴権の告知  notice of the right of appeal
48 第一審における判決主文  judgment in the court of first instance
49 主刑  principal punishment
50 懲役  imprisonment with forced labor
51 禁錮  imprisonment without forced labor
52 有罪  guilty judgment
53 労役場留置  detention at a work-house for non-payment of fine
54 刑の執行猶予  suspension of execution of sentence
55 保護観察  probationary supervision
56 補導処分  guidance disposition
57 没収  forfeiture
58 追徴  collection of equivalent value
59 被害者還付  restoration of seized object to the victim
60 仮納付  provisional payment
61 訴訟費用の負担  payment of litigation costs
62 計の執行の減軽又は免除  reduction or remission of execution of punishment
63 刑の免除  remission of punishment
64 無罪  not guilty
65 一部無罪  not guilty for part of charges
66 免訴  dismissal for external reasons
67 公訴棄却  dismissal of indictment
68 管轄違い  lack of jurisdiction
69 控訴棄却  dismissal of appeal
70 破棄自判  reversal and rendering judgment of the case
71 破棄差戻し  reversal and remanding of the case
72 破棄移送  reversal and transfer of the case
73 判決理由  ground for judgment
74 罪となるべき事実  facts constituting the offense
75 変造有価証券行使罪  uttering altered securities
76 覚せい剤取締法違反  violation of the Stimulant Drug Control Law
77 大麻取締法違反  violation of the Cannabis Control Law
78 麻薬及び向精神薬取締法違反  violation of the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control law
79 強盗致死罪  robbery resulting in death
80 業務上過失傷害罪  bodily injury through negligence in the conduct of occupation
81 傷害罪  bodily injury
82 詐欺罪  fraud
83 殺人罪(確定的故意)  homicide
84 殺人罪(未必的故意)  murder
85 銃砲刀剣類所持等取締法違反及び火薬類取締法違反  
  violation of the Firearms and Swords Control Law and the Gunpowder Control law
86 万引き  shoplifting
87 すり  pickpocketing
88 教唆  solicitation
89 幇助  assistance
90 証拠の標目  evidence list
91 累犯前科  previous criminal record which will raise the maximum prescribed penalty
92 確定判決  judgment which already became final
93 法令の適用  application of legal provisions
94 量刑の理由  grounds for sentencing
95 アリバイ  alibi
96 改悛の情  repentance/remorse
97 鑑定  expert evidence/expert opinion
98 起訴猶予  suspension of prosecution
99 強制送還  deportation
100 所持品検査  police inspection of personal property